1 “Constitution of India,” 1950, https://​www​.india​.gov​.in/​m​y​-​g​o​v​e​r​n​m​e​n​t​/​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​t​i​o​n​-​india.

2 William Dalrymple, “The Great Divide: The Violent Legacy of Indian Partition,” New Yorker, June 22, 2015.

3 Sunil Khilnani, The Idea of India (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1997).

4 N. I. Sarkar, Sonia Gandhi: Tryst with India (New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers, 2007).

5 Hartosh Singh Bal, “The Transformation of India Is Nearly Complete,” New York Times, November 11, 2019.

6 Ramachandra Guha, India after Gandhi: The History of the World’s Largest Democracy (New York: Harper Perennial, 2007), pp. 582–98.

7 Guha, India After Gandhi, pp. 582–98.

8 Vidya Subrahmaniam, “Babri Masjid Demolition Was Planned: Lieberhan,” The Hindu (New Delhi), November 24, 2009.

9 Pradeep K. Chhibber and Ken Kollman, The Formation of National Party Systems (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004).

10 Chhibber and Kollman, The Formation of National Party Systems.

11 Praveen Swami, The Kargil War (New Delhi: LeftWord Books, 2000).

12 Amy Waldman, “Premier of India Is Forced to Quit after Vote Upset,” New York Times, May 14, 2004.

13 Rajdeep Sardesai, 2014: The Election That Changed India (New Delhi: Penguin India, 2015).

14 Manas Dasgupta, “SIT Finds No Proof against Modi, Says Court,” The Hindu (New Delhi), April 10, 2012.

15 Sardesai, 2014: The Election That Changed India.

16 Sardesai, 2014: The Election That Changed India.

17 “BJP’s Shrinking Footprint: Saffron Area on India’s Political Map Reduced to Half in Less than 2 Years,” News18​.com, December 23, 2019.

18 Walter K. Andersen and Shridhar D. Damle, The RSS: A View to the Inside (New Delhi: Penguin Random House, India, 2018).

19 Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar, We, or Our Nation Defined (Nagpur: Harat Publications, 1939).

20 “Golwalkar Drew Lessons from Hitler’s Germany,” Hindu Business Line, November 27, 2015.

21 Manohar Malgonkar, The Men Who Killed Gandhi (New Delhi: Roli Books, 2015).

22 Shamsul Islam, “A Contested Legacy,” Indian Express (New Delhi), June 10, 2020.

23 Andersen and Damle, The RSS.

24 Saurabh Bajpai, “Did Nobody Kill Gandhi?,” National Herald (New Delhi), October 2, 2019.

25 Andersen and Damle, The RSS.

26 Andersen and Damle, The RSS.

27 Andersen and Damle, The RSS.

28 Shashi Tharoor, Why I Am a Hindu (London: C. Hurst and Co., 2018).

29 Sanjeev Sabhlok, “What Is Mr. Modi’s Plan for Indian’s Muslims?,” Times of India (New Delhi), January 2, 2020.

30 Christophe Jaffrelot, “Losing by Religion: Muslim Exclusion in Modi’s de facto Hindu Rashtra,” The Caravan, March 1, 2019.

31 Gurcharan Das, “Voter in the Middle: With Acche Din Nowhere in Sight, Who Does a Moderate Vote for This Election?,” Times of India (New Delhi), March 25, 2019.

32 Swaminathan S. Anklesaria Aiyar, “A Little of This and Lots of That,” Swaminomics​.org (blog), December 20, 2017.

33 Ruhi Tewari, “Aadhaar, MGNREGA, DBT, Rural Housing—How Modi Has Hijacked Congress Legacy,” ThePrint, May 19, 2020.

34 Doing Business 2020 (Washington: World Bank, 2020).

35 Sneha Alexander and Vishnu Padmanabhan, “Despite Hype, Demonetization Missed All Goals,” Mint (New Delhi), May 5, 2019.

36 Ajit Ranade, “The Unfulfilled Promise of the Goods and Services Tax,” Mint (New Delhi), June 29, 2020.

37 Swaminathan S. Anklesaria Aiyar, “India Should Join Asia’s New Free‐​Trade Area,” Cato Institute Economic Development Bulletin no. 32, February 5, 2020.

38 Economic Survey 2019–20: Statistical Appendix (New Delhi: Government of India, 2020).

39 Atisha Kumar, “Explained: India’s Labour Market and PLFS Data,” Financial Express, June 20, 2019.

40 “Unemployment Rate in India,” Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, https://​unem​ploy​men​tinin​dia​.cmie​.com.

41 “BJP Manifesto 2019: No to Article 370 and 35A,” India Today (New Delhi), April 8, 2019.

42 Suhasini Haidar and Kallol Bhattacherjee, “Target Terror: India Strikes across LOC,” The Hindu (New Delhi), September 29, 2016.

43 Dexter Filkins, “Blood and Soil in Narendra Modi’s India,” New Yorker, December 2, 2019.

44 Sanjay Kumar and Pranav Gupta, “Where Did the BJP Get Its Votes from in 2019?,” Mint (New Delhi), June 3, 2019.

45 Jayshree Bajoria, “‘Shoot the Traitors’: Discrimination against Muslims under India’s New Citizenship Policy,” Human Rights Watch, April 9, 2020.

46 Bruce Stokes, Dorothy Manevich, and Hanyu Chwe, Three Years In, Modi Remains Very Popular (Washington: Pew Research Center, November 15, 2017).

47 M. R. Masani, “India’s Second Revolution,” Asian Affairs 5, no. 1 (September–October 1977): 19–38.

48 Faisal C. K., “From Vajpayee’s Founding Speech to Modi’s Deeds, the BJP Has Deviated from Its Stated Ideals,” Scroll​.in, December 10, 2019.

49 Christophe Jaffrelot, “The Fate of Secularism in India,” in The BJP in Power: Indian Democracy and Religious Nationalism, ed. Milan Vaishnav (Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, April 2019).

50 John F. Burns, “Mixed Message in Indian Premier’s Cabinet Choices,” New York Times, May 7, 1996; and Ishan Joshi, “The BJP’s Millennial Muslim,” Outlook, December 13, 1999.

51 Christophe Jaffrelot and Malvika Maheshwari, “BJP’s Move to Field Pragya Thakur in Bhopal Underlines an Ominous Political Paradigm Shift,” Indian Express (New Delhi), May 11, 2019.

52 Sameer Yasir, “Gandhi’s Killer Evokes Admiration as Never Before,” New York Times, February 4, 2020.

53 “BJP Condemns Pragya Thakur’s Remarks on Godse; Drops Her from Defence Panel,” Times Now, video, 10:01, November 28, 2019.

54 Smriti Kak Ramachandran, “RSS Gives Thumbs Up to Modi Govt’s Slogan of ‘Sabke Saath, Sabka Vikas,’” Hindustan Times (New Delhi), March 28, 2017.

55 Gyan Verma, “After Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas, Win Sabka Vishwas: Modi to NDA Parliamentarians,” Mint (New Delhi), May 25, 2019.

56 “Muslim Vote: How BJP Trumped Congress,” Economic Times (New Delhi), March 27, 2019.

57 Jaffrelot, “Losing by Religion.”

58 Delna Abraham and Ojaswi Rao, “84% Dead in Cow‐​Related Violence since 2010 Are Muslims; 97% Attacks after 2014,” IndiaSpend, June 28, 2017.

59 Pratap Bhanu Mehta, “May the Silent Be Damned,” Indian Express (New Delhi), June 27, 2017.

60 Adrija Roychowdhury, “The Bakarwals: Behind Kathua Rape and Murder, a Persecuted Tribe That’s Both Muslim and Hindu,” Indian Express (New Delhi), April 13, 2018.

61 Rashmi Rajput, “Narendra Dabholkar Murder Case: CBI Arrests Sanatan Sanstha Counsel, Sanjeev Punalekar, One Other,” Economic Times (New Delhi), May 25, 2019.

62 “NIA Makes First Arrest in 2006 Malegaon Blast Case,” India Today (New Delhi), December 29, 2012.

63 “The Crisis in India’s Justice System,” Economic Times (blog) (New Delhi), March 29, 2019.

64 Maria Abi‐​Habib and Suhasini Raj, “Couple Can Reunite in ‘Love Jihad’ Case, India’s Supreme Court Rules,” New York Times, April 10, 2018.

65 U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, Annual Report 2020 (Washington: USCIRF, April 2020).

66 Jeffrey Gettleman, Kai Schultz, and Suhasini Raj, “In India, Coronavirus Fans Religious Hatred,” New York Times, April 12, 2020.

67 “Govt Revokes Article 370 from Jammu and Kashmir, Bifurcates State into Two Union Territories,” Times of India (New Delhi), August 5, 2019.

68 Fahad Shah, “‘News from Here Doesn’t Go Out’: Kashmir Simmers under Lockdown,” The Atlantic, August 18, 2019.

69 Swaminathan S. Anklesaria Aiyar, “NRC-CAA Move Likely to Stoke a Statistical Collapse,” Times of India (New Delhi), February 9, 2020.

70 Rohan Venkataramakrishnan, “Who Is Linking Citizenship Act to NRC? Here Are Five Times Amit Shah Did So,” Scroll​.in, December 20, 2019.

71 “India: Citizenship Bill Discriminates against Muslims,” Human Rights Watch, December 11, 2019.

72 Shubha Kamala Prasad, “India Is Cracking Down on University Protests. Here’s What You Need to Know,” Washington Post, January 10, 2020.

73 Hannah Ellis‐​Petersen, “‘Feed Them Bullets Not Biryani’: BJP Uses Delhi Elections to Stoke Religious Hatred,” The Guardian (London), February 6, 2020.

74 Swaminathan S. Anklesaria Aiyar, “The Constitution and a Protest,” Times of India (New Delhi), January 29, 2020.

75 Maria Abi‐​Habib and Sameer Yasir, “In Bitter Delhi Election, Modi’s Party Suffers a Setback,” New York Times, February 11, 2020.

76 Samyak Pandey, “11 State Govts, Representing 56% of India, Have Now Taken a ‘No‐​NRC,’ Stance,” ThePrint, December 24, 2019.

77 “Election Commissioner Ashok Lavasa’s Son and Sister Also Issued Notices by Tax Department: Report,” Scroll​.in, September 25, 2019.

78 Jeffrey Gettleman, “Gandhi Biographer Arrested as Protests over Citizenship Law Sweep India,” New York Times, December 19, 2019; Supriya Shrinate, “Chidambaram Arrest: 100 Days and Counting, Yet What Has Been Proven?,” Thewire​.in (New Delhi), December 1, 2019; “India MP Shashi Tharoor Charged over Wife’s Death,” BBC​.com, May 14, 2018; Indo Asian News Service, “CBI Books NDTV Founder Prannoy Roy, Wife, Others for Alleged FDI Norms Violation,” Outlook (New Delhi), August 21, 2019; Betwa Sharma, “Siddharth Varadarajan on Police Summons: Coronavirus Has Deepened the Worst Tendencies of Human Governance,” Huff​in​g​ton​post​.in, April 15, 2020; “Sanjiv Bhatt: India Riots Whistleblower Gets Life in Jail for Murder,” BBC​.com, June 20, 2019; “Gujarat Cops: Activist Teesta Setalvad Committed ‘Colossal Fraud,’” Indian Express (New Delhi), July 4, 2020; and Devjyot Ghosal, “Indian Police Raid Prominent Lawyers Who Took on Party Leaders,” Reuters​.com, July 11, 2019.

79 Anurag Kotoky, “Billionaire Says Companies Fear Criticizing Indian Government,” Bloomberg, December 1, 2019.

80 “Bombay HC Suspends Proceedings on 2 FIRs against Republic TV Editor‐​in‐​Chief,” thewire​.in, June 30, 2020.

81 Piyasree Dasgupta, “What Happens to the People Arrested for Insulting Modi,” Huff​in​g​ton​post​.in, April 24, 2018.

82 Santosh Singh, “Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Ramachandra Guha, Mani Ratnam: Their Letter to PM on Lynching Gets Them Booked for Sedition,” Indian Express (New Delhi), October 5, 2019.

83 Sharan Poovanna, “Amnesty India Faces Sedition Charges over Kashmir Debate,” Mint (New Delhi), August 17, 2016; and Divya Spandana, “Pakistan Is No Hell,” Indian Express (New Delhi), August 24, 2016.

84 “The School Play That Sent a Mother to Prison,” BBC​.com, February 11, 2020.

85 World Report 2018 (Washington: Human Rights Watch, 2019).

86 Jayshree Bajoria, “Folk Singer’s Arrest Shows India’s Free Speech Problem,” Human Rights Watch, April 17, 2018.

87 “India Government Appoints Shaktikanta Das as RBI Governor,” Reuters, December 11, 2018.

88 Ross Colvin and Satarupa Bhattachariya, “A ‘Caged Parrot’—Supreme Court Described CBI,” Reuters, May 9, 2013.

89 “CAA Violence: HC Anguished over Police Failure to Lodge FIRs over Hate Speech by 3 BJP Leaders,” Out​lookin​dia​.com, February 26, 2020.

90 Pratap Bhanu Mehta, “Delhi Riots Chargesheet Invents Conspiracy and Enemy, as per Script,” Indian Express (New Delhi), September 25, 2020.

91 Sofi Ahsan, “Samjhauta Express Blast Case: With ‘Anguish,’ NIA Judge Says ‘Dastardly Act’ Unpunished for Want of Proof,” Indian Express (New Delhi), March 29, 2019.

92 Maaz Hussain, “India Minorities Face Increased Sectarian Attacks,” voanews​.com, April 28, 2017.

93 “UP Congress Leaders Protest Party Colleague’s Arrest,” Out​lookin​dia​.com, June 30, 2020.

94 “HC Grants Bail to Manjit Mahanta, Interim Relief to Hiren Gohain, Akhhil Gogoi in Sedition Case,” Out​lookin​dia​.com, January 11, 2019.

95 “Kanhaiya Kumar: ‘Sedition’ Student Returns to JNU with Fiery Speech,” BBC​.com, March 4, 2016.

96 Aditya Shastri, “Our Society Keeps Changing. Does the Law Change Too?,” Medi​um​.com, May 20, 2019.

97 Bal, “The Transformation of India is Nearly Complete.”

98 Bal, “The Transformation of India is Nearly Complete.”

99 Rakesh Mohan Chaturvedi, “Former CJI Ranjan Gogoi Takes Oath Amid Protests, Walkout in Rajya Sabha,” Economic Times (New Delhi), March 20, 2020.

100 Kumar Shakti Shekhar, “Why BJP Mocks Rahul Gandhi for Being Janeu Dhari,” India Today (New Delhi), October 21, 2018.

101 Uday Mahurkar, “Gujarat: Shankersinh Vaghela Appointment as PCC Chief Forces BJP to Change Its Poll Tactics,” India Today (New Delhi), July 29, 2002.

102 “Rajya Sabha Votes to Divide Jammu and Kashmir into Two Union Territories,” BloombergQunit​.com, August 5, 2019.

103 Manveena Suri, “Narendra Modi’s BJP Suffers Big Loss in New Delhi Elections,” CNN​.com, February 12, 2020.

104 “YSR Congress Polls Nearly 50 Per Cent Vote in Andhra Pradesh,” NDTV​.com, May 24, 2019.

105 Swaminathan S. Anklesaria Aiyar, “No Love for Hatemongers,” Times of India (New Delhi), February 12, 2020.

106 “BJP’s 31% Lowest Vote Share of Any Party,” Times of India (New Delhi), May 19, 2014.

107 Swaminathan S. Anklesaria S. Aiyar, “Anti‐​Incumbency Wave in N-E No Less than BJP Wave,” Times of India (New Delhi), March 11, 2018.

108 Pretika Khanna, “Blow to NDA, HC Restores Congress Govt in Uttarakhand,” Mint (New Delhi), April 22, 2016.

109 Apurva Vishwanath and Gyan Varma, “Blow to BJP after Supreme Court Restores Arunachal Pradesh Govt,” Mint (New Delhi), July 14, 2016.

110 Amy Kazmin, “India’s Supreme Court Orders Karnataka Floor Test for Saturday,” Financial Times (London), May 18, 2018.

111 “The Special Court Will Frame the Charges after the Accused Appear Before It in Person, CBI Counsel Lalit Singh Said,” Economic Times (New Delhi), May 24, 2017.

112 Maneesh Chhibber, “35 Yrs Later, a Former Chief Justice of India Pleads Guilty,” Indian Express (New Delhi), September 16, 2011.

113 “Constitution of India,” 1950, https://​www​.india​.gov​.in/​m​y​-​g​o​v​e​r​n​m​e​n​t​/​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​t​i​o​n​-​india.

114 Aiyar, “NRC-CAA Move Likely to Stoke a Statistical Collapse.”

115 Mustafa Shaikh, “Uddhav Thackeray Defends CAA, but Says Won’t Allow NRC in Maharashtra,” India Today (New Delhi), February 2, 2020.

116 “Goa CM Manohar Parrikar Backs Beef Traders,” Times of India (New Delhi), January 11, 2018.

117 Swaminathan S. Anklesaria Aiyar, “Can Bihar Open Door for ‘Sabka Vishwas?,’” Times of India (New Delhi), March 8, 2020.

118 Niha Masih, “Amnesty International to Cease Work in India, Citing Government Harassment,” Washington Post, September 29, 2020.

119 Amy Kazmin, “Indian Charities Battle for Survival after Government Crackdown,” Financial Times (London), September 29, 2020.

120 2020 World Press Freedom Index (Paris: Reporters Without Borders, 2020).

121 WJP Rule of Law Index 2020 (Washington: World Justice Project, 2020).

122 Ryan White, “EUI Report: 2019 a Year of Democratic Setbacks and Popular Protest,” Democracy Without Borders, February 7, 2020.

123 Data are for May 2020. See “Aggregate Category and Subcategory Scores, 2003–2020,” (Excel download), Freedom House, free​dom​house​.org/​r​e​p​o​r​t​/​f​r​e​e​d​o​m​-​world.





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